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safety Handling Disposal
Acetone Handling and Storage
Protect against physical damage. Store in a cool, dry
well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fire hazard may be
acute. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles.
Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfers to avoid static sparks.
Storage and use areas should be No Smoking areas. Use non-sparking type tools
and equipment, including explosion proof ventilation. Containers of this
material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues
(vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.
Acetone should always be handled,
stored, and used with precautions against fire and explosion. Acetone is a
flammable liquid with flammable limits of 2.6 to 12.8 vol% at 25°C. Solutions
of acetone and water can be flammable. Since acetone vapors travel with air
currents, they can be ignited by flames and sparks at locations remote from
the site at which the material is being handled. Smoking should be prohibited
since prolonged exposure to acetone may cause the chemical to remain on
Appropriate safety gear should always be
worn when handling acetone. This includes safety glasses with cup-type side
shields or chemical goggles, safety shoes, natural rubber, or neoprene gloves,
and hard hat. In unusual or emergency situations when contact with the liquid
is necessary or likely, the handler should wear full protective equipment and
clothing. All contaminated clothing must be washed before reuse. Protective
equipment and clothing should be decontaminated or disposed of according to
the manufacturers instructions.
In case of eye contact with acetone,
wash with copious amounts of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally
lifting the lower and upper lids. Obtain medical attention promptly. In case
of skin contact, wash with water for at least 15 minutes. If inhaled, remove
the patient from contaminated atmosphere to fresh air. If not breathing, give
artificial respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. If breathing is difficult,
give oxygen which is administered only by trained personnel. Get prompt
Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee
exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is
generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at
its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area.
Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved):
If the exposure limit is exceeded and engineering controls are not feasible, a
half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn for up to ten times the
exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate
regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face
piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit,
or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory
agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or
instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece
positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators
do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.
Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron
or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is
possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.
Pressure tanks built according to
ASME code are preferred over atmospheric tanks if acetone is to be stored at or
near its boiling point (56.2°C). In the case of atmospheric tanks, provisions
must be made for inbreathing (vacuum relief) and outbreathing (pressure relief)
in the form of a combination pressure/vacuum relief valve whose size is based on
the vent rates established by NFPA 30, Flammable & Combustible Liquids Code.
Tanks should not have steam coils.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STORAGE SYSTEMS
For the safe storage of acetone,
portable tanks not exceeding 660 gallons and containers not exceeding 60 gallons
must comply with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Code 30, Chapter 4
and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation
1910.106. Leaks are difficult to detect in underground tanks but if it is
necessary to use such tanks, they must also conform to the above mentioned codes
and all federal, state and local regulations.
Acetone is a Class 1 flammable
liquid. Bulk storage tanks are not to be located inside buildings unless built
in accordance with the process tank provisions of the NFPA code.
The design of storage tanks must
conform to the principles of good engineering practice. Tanks can be either
horizontal or vertical and in any shape consistent with good design principles.
Acetone can be stored in tanks designed for the following pressure ranges and
||0 - 0.5 PSIG
||0.5 - 15 PSIG
||ASME Boiler &
Pressure Vessel Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels
Sec. VIII, Div. 1
Open vents should not be used
with acetone since its flash point is below 100°F. When designing vents, the
minimum for venting that should be used is contained in NFPA 30, Flammable &
Combustible Liquid Code. For inbreathing, vacuum relief API 2000 should be used.
Note: The inbreathing sizing as
called for in API 2000 is not adequate for the situation where a steam tank is
subject to sudden cooling. For most tanks, emergency vents are required to
protect against fire exposure. Although protection can be achieved by the use of
additional P/V valves,
a gauge hatch or manhole cover
that lifts when exposed to abnormal pressure is normally used. Again, tanks used
for acetone storage will not usually have steam coils.
It is recommended that tanks
larger than 10,000 gallons be equipped with either an internal or an external
floating roof to prevent the accumulation and loss of vapor.
Because of the high vapor
pressure of acetone (2.5 PSIA at 20°C) federal regulations require that tanks
larger than 20,000 gallons which were constructed, reconstructed or modified
after July 23, 1984 have a floating roof or have a vapor recovery system to
Floating roof tanks need a double closure seal to eliminate the space between
the roof edge and wall. The design of floating roof tanks is covered by API
Acetone storage tanks may be
painted white to minimize radiational heating by sunlight. Tanks should also not
be filled to the top as acetone will expand as temperatures rise in warmer
Check for any additional requirements mandated by State or Local regulations.
AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION
All storage tank systems should
be equipped with instrumentation to monitor temperature and level, as well as a
high-level alarm if possible. Centrifugal pumps are preferred for transferring
acetone. Avoid using positive displacement type pumps since acetone provides
minimum lubrication to the internal parts. Fire safe valves, which can be plug,
gate, ball, or other types capable of providing tight shut-off consistent with
ANSI Standard B31.3 or ANSI B31.4l, could be used. Plastic valves should not be
used since they typically do not provide adequate fire protection and may not be
compatible with acetone. Sufficient valves are required to control flow into and
discharge from the tank under normal and emergency conditions.
A water spray system may be
installed consistent with NFPA 12 since acetone/water mixtures are flammable.
All tanks should have connections for the introduction of polar solvent
(alcohol) type foam. Floating roof tanks need connections near the seal area.
Electrical equipment used should
meet the requirements of the NEC (NFPA 70) Class I, Group D. Additional
information can be found in NFPA 30, The Flammable & Combustible Liquids Code
and NFPA 497A Recommended Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical
Process Areas, which give the minimum requirements for proper classification.
In dealing with static
electricity problems refer to NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static
Electricity, and NFPA 780, Lighting Protection Code.
In order to minimize problems
from static electricity arising from the loading and unloading of acetone,
grounding and bonding procedures should be used. (Refer to NFPA 77).
Location of tanks with respect to
each other and property lines need to conform with NFPA Standard 30.
Provisions for containment of
spills from tanks must also be made in accordance with this standard. An
approved fire alarm system is required and a public alarm box is recommended.
The number of portable fire extinguishers on hand should be consistent with the
MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION
Carbon steel or stainless steel
are the preferred materials for construction of tanks, pumps, and piping
components. If diacetone alcohol or mesityl oxide are of concern, stainless
steel is preferred. Gaskets may be made of expanded TFE or TFE-gylon 3510.
Aluminum can be used as the floating roof material. TFE wrapped urethane foam
inserted with polypropylene fingers that bolt to the floating roof provide an
effective perimeter seal for the roof.
Acetone is a solvent for many elastomers. Therefore, the sealing material for a
floatiang roof closure must be selected carefully. It is recommended that all
construction materials used for equipment or containers be checked for acetone
|US DOT Hazardous
||Class 3 -
Flammable Liquid, Appendix A (171.101)
|US DOT ID
||Acetone, 3, UN
1090, PG II, (RQ 5000)
HANDLING BULK DELIVERIES
Loading and unloading facilities
should be at least 25 feet from other buildings and warehouses. When loading acetone
into rail cars or tank cars, install a vapor recovery system to minimize
emissions. In addition, provide grounding and bonding facilities for protection
from static sparks while loading and unloading.
Before loading or unloading a
bulk delivery always check the storage tank to insure that it has sufficient
available space. Monitor the tank level at all times during filling and be
prepared to stop the flow immediately if necessary. High level alarms and
shutdown may be installed.
Samples should not be taken
through the dome immediately after filling.
MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTIONS
The volatile properties of
acetone make maintenance and inspection procedures especially critical.
Personnel should routinely observe for possible leaks from valves, pump
fittings, and storage tanks. Inspect all atmospheric tanks internally every 10
years or when operational problems arise. Floating roofs should be inspected
every 5 years. Annually compare ultrasonic measurements or tank material
thickness to monitor the corrosion rate of the tank walls. It is instructive to
conduct a visual inspection of all welds at this time as well. If potential
problem areas are observed, tests and/or an X-ray inspection should follow with
repairs made accordingly.